(CNN) — “I used to take potatoes for granted,” reads the first line of the book, “Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent.”
Author John Reader corrects this mistake by delving into the potato’s rich history, one that dates back to the pre-Inca people of the Andes who first domesticated the potato around 8,000 years ago. Reader tracks the potato’s migration to Europe at the end of the 16th century, its rise as the prized crop of Ireland and its eventual spread around the globe in new and delicious forms.
Fried, baked, mashed and beyond — whether the recipe calls for Russets or Yukon Gold, red-skinned or purple potatoes — these are some of the most popular ways to enjoy a potato around the world.
Late Michelin-starred chef Joël Robuchon claimed that he owed everything to his take on mashed potatoes. (Or, in his native French, “pommes purée.”)
Comfort food par excellence and holiday spread staple, the mashed potato is said to have emerged in the UK in the mid-18th century. Mash methodology may vary but a plate of mash today looks very much like the original: boiled potatoes mashed with butter, milk or cream with a dash of salt.
Some mashed favorites beyond the original include:
Champ / Colcannon, Ireland
Almost as soon as mashed potato appeared, it was mixed with kale or cabbage by Irish households to create a filling dish that would prepare workers for a long day of labor. Colcannon is also a traditional Halloween dish, with, in times past, a coin, rag, stick or other trinket stirred inside. Whichever item showed up on your plate was said to predict your future.
A hearty, wintry dish that mixes puréed potatoes with seasonal vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, leeks, kale and turnip greens. Stoemp is both pub fare and a useful way to repurpose leftovers at home.
Bangers and mash, UK
While the mash portion of this dish is fairly straightforward, it’s the combination that makes it an enduring comfort food go-to. The bangers (sausages) elevate the mash and the creamy potatoes take the bangers beyond the ordinary. Smother both in gravy for peak pub-grub, belly-filling heartiness.
Meat pie with mashed potatoes and mushy peas, Australia
Duchess potatoes, France
If Duchess Potatoes (or “Pommes Duchesse”) are a cousin of mashed potatoes, they are the posh, high-maintenance kind. To make this French favorite, mashed potato is puréed with egg yolk, butter and nutmeg and the mixture is piped into decorative swirls, which are then painted with more butter and browned in the oven until golden.
Duchess potatoes combined with choux pastry dough is the basis of another French potato dish, the churro-like pommes de terre Lorette.
Shepherd’s pie, UK
Shepherd’s Pie is a classic winter warmer.
Another dish that takes mashed potato and bakes it until crispy on top is this hearty dish with its roots in the UK. Ground meat is mixed with gravy, onions, carrots, herbs and other vegetables of choice, then topped with lashings of mash.
Traditionally, Shepherd’s Pie uses lamb while Cottage Pie is made of beef, but you’ll often find both varieties getting the Shepherd’s label.
Potato bread, Ireland
You may have sampled it on St. Patrick’s Day, but potato bread is a year-round treat in Ireland. Leftover mashed potato is turned into a dough to create triangles — known as farls — which are then cooked on a griddle or in a heavy frying pan. The resulting potato bread is often enjoyed with fried eggs on top for breakfast.
Irish chef Kevin Dundon recommends using mash that’s still warm (or reheated) when trying your hand at potato bread at home.
A Chilean version of potato bread is known as milcao.
Can’t decide between creamy mashed potato and a fried, crispy potato fritter? There’s a snack for that, and we have the Italians to thank. Crocchè come from Sicily, but are also easy to find in Naples and elsewhere in the country.
In Palermo, they are known as “cazzilli” and back in the day they were a way to use up the oldest potatoes.
Today, they’re a fun street-fair snack best enjoyed hot.
In India, a similar snack known as bonda also takes mashed potato (and spices), batters it and deep fries it until golden.
Chopped and fried
The french fry may be the world’s favorite way to eat a potato. The concept is simple: Cut potato into straws and deep fry. But getting creative with variations on the original is half the fun.
As for that name, it’s unclear that the fry originated in France. Some claim they began in Belgium, where the salty delight was first encountered by American soldiers during World War I.
How thick you cut your fries — or chips, as they’re known in the UK, Australia and other places — is a personal preference that affects the level of crunch and texture of the end result. Shoestring fries tend to be used for dishes like steak-frites, while chunkier chips, splashed with with malt vinegar or ketchup, are favored for fish and chips.
There’s no dish more British than fish and chips.
In Belgium, frites with mayo — or myriad other sauces — are a point of national pride, and in the UK and Ireland, curry or gravy chips make a useful late-night repast after several of your ales of choice. Aussies go mad for chicken salt on their hot chips, and in Texas, chili cheese fries give the dish the nachos treatment, loading up the fries with chili, salsa, sour cream, shredded cheese, jalapeño peppers and other accoutrements.
Apparently, waiters at one of the first restaurants to serve Quebec’s now iconic dish grew tired of writing “fries, cheese curds and gravy,” giving birth to the moniker “poutine,” meaning pudding or a “mess.”
More than one establishment lays claim to creating it. But no man has eaten more of it in one sitting than competitive eater Joey Chestnut, who, in 2019, ate a record 28 pounds of the stuff in 10 minutes at the Smoke’s Poutinerie World Poutine Eating Championship in Toronto. In the Northeast United States, you’ll find a spin on poutine known as disco fries — topped with gravy and melted cheese — in classic American diners.
Potato wedges/Jojo, United States/Australia
A popular bar snack in Australia (and well beyond) — where they are often served with sweet chili sauce on the side — potato wedges are as advertised. A wedge of potato baked or, more commonly, fried, and usually seasoned with spices including paprika.
In the Northwestern United States, the Jojo is often mistaken for a potato wedge — but in fact, this local specialty is potato battered with a spiced breading similar to that on fried chicken.
Fried potato dishes
There’s more to the fried potato universe than fries alone. While these fried dishes might involve buckets of hot oil and calories, they make up for it in “just one more bite” addictive flavor.
Potato hash, United States
Often made with leftovers from holiday meals, potato hash is a breakfast dish that’s just as tempting any other time of day. Whether reheating potatoes or baking a fresh batch, they should be diced before throwing into a skillet with your chosen accompaniments. Ree Drummond, the food blogger behind “The Pioneer Woman,” favors bell peppers, squash, zucchini and onions. Once it’s all cooked through and the potatoes are golden, serve with a fried egg on top.
Bubble and squeak, UK
On the other side of the pond, the concept of repurposing last night’s dinner takes the form of bubble and squeak, which involves frying up leftover cabbage and other vegetables with the remaining mashed potatoes from a Sunday roast. The result resembles a quiche, which is often cut into wedges and served as a side dish. Or it can be the main attraction for a quick and easy lunch or dinner — and, like a hash, enjoyed with a fried egg on top.
Hash browns, United States
Hash browns nestle alongside an Egg McMuffin at a McDonald’s restaurant in Fairfield, California.
Justin Sullivan/Getty Images
The dish — diced or shredded potatoes fried into potato cake — is now an integral part of the McDonald’s breakfast menu, even if it plays more of a supporting role to the Egg McMuffin.
Tater tots, United States
Patatas bravas, Spain
Potato scallops, Australia
Potato scallop, potato fritter or potato cake? Potato Potahto. Like their mates, the fish and chips, this fried delight actually originated in England. Doesn’t matter; Aussies love them, often consuming scallops — a thin slice of potato dipped in batter and deep-fried — on hot summer days at the beach. In Sydney, the words “scallop” and “potato scallop” are interchangeable, and the kind you find in the ocean have been relegated to “sea scallops.”
Potatoes sarladaise, France
This dish comes to us from the town of Sarlat in Périgord, the home of duck (or goose) confit and it’s as simple as it is decadent. To make, slice potatoes and fry them in confit fat. Truffles, another local delicacy, are added for one more sucker punch of OTT flavor.
Kuku sibzamini, Iran
These Persian potato fritters are elevated by adding turmeric powder and saffron to the egg mixture that’s combined with rough-mashed potatoes to form the patties. They’re fried and served hot, with yogurt on the side.
Potato chips/crisps, UK/Ireland
They’re the hero of parties and the playground, and are one of the world’s most beloved snack foods. But where did the potato chip come from? Apparently the origin story tracing it to New York’s Saratoga Springs in 1853 is a myth, while the earliest known recipe is traced to Englishman William Kitchiner’s 1817 book “The Cook’s Oracle.”
Potato chips remained unseasoned until the 1950s, when Joe “Spud” Murphy, owner of Ireland’s Tayto crisp company, developed a technology to add flavoring during manufacturing. The result was the still iconic Tayto cheese and onion, and companies around the world soon rushed to follow suit.
Potato pancake dishes
Latkes, Eastern Europe
This fried potato pancake, traditionally served with sour cream and applesauce, is best known for its starring role in the traditions of Hanukkah. As Bruce Weinstein explains in “The Ultimate Potato Book,” “folklore claims that the oil in the skillet reminds us of the oil lamps that miraculously burned for eight days.”
It’s the unofficial dish of Switzerland — once eaten by farmers and now enjoyed by the masses. The word rösti means “crisp and golden,” just as the sauteed potato fritter is best savored. In “The Ultimate Potato Book,” Weinstein recommends using parboiled potatoes to ensure the perfect level of rösti crispiness.
Gamja jeon, Korea
A savory, highly customizable potato pancake traditionally eaten on rainy days in Korean homes. Gamja jeon pancakes are made with finely grated potato and onion and fried until golden.
Baked and roasted potato dishes
Whether you like ’em small or chunky, soft or crispy, roast potatoes are a beloved side dish — a holiday must-have. In Italian, they’re patate al forno; Greeks roast their potatoes with lemon.
Loaded or dressed baked potatoes, on the other hand, can serve as a main meal, piled high with cheese, bacon and other calorific delights. Most recipes call for baking a potato in foil until soft, scooping out the flesh and mixing it with butter, sour cream, chives and your chosen ingredients before refilling the potatoes and popping them back in the oven for a quick finish.
Pommes Anna, France
It’s so famous that there’s a baking dish named after it, the la cocotte à pommes Anna. Before the potatoes go into the copper pan, they’re peeled and sliced thin, and then layered with plenty of clarified butter and baked in their namesake dish until they resemble a cake. The next step is to flip the cake over to cook the other side — a process the la cocotte à pommes Anna helps to simplify.
Potato gratin, France
Another popular way to eat potatoes in France is in the form of a gratin, a kind of fancy, creamy casserole finished with a browned crust. It’s made by layering sliced boiled potatoes with cream or béchamel sauce and a cheese like gruyère, and baking until hot and inviting.
Potato salad dishes
It’s a crucial part of a summer spread; a true July 4 classic. Potato salad may be as American as apple pie, but it’s said to have arrived in the US by way of European immigrants. Who, in turn, were introduced to the dish by Spanish explorers.
While there are endless iterations, the American potato salad most closely resembles German potato salad. The switch from dressing the cooked potatoes in oil, vinegar and herbs (as was the German style) to dousing them in creamy mayo seems to have occurred around the time that commercial mayonnaise became popular in the US — in the 1920s and’ 30s. German potato salad was usually served warm; the Americanized version is best eaten cold.
Japanese potato salad
Switch out the mayo for Japanese Kewpie mayo and opt for half-mashed potato rather than boiled and you’ll be halfway to making a delicious Japanese potato salad. This spin calls for rice wine vinegar and chopped cucumber and carrots for crunch.
The origins of Russian, or Olivier salad, can be traced back to the 19th century and Russia’s celebrated pre-Revolution restaurant The Hermitage. The modern version typically includes diced potatoes and other vegetables, creamy dressing and pickles.
Boiled potato dishes
The bane of many kids’ existence, boiled potatoes usually require oodles of butter, herbs or other dressings to become covetable (see loaded or dressed potatoes). The following dishes take the humbled boiled potato to tastier heights via strategic pairings.
Papas chorreadas, Colombia
Boiled potatoes, meet onions, tomatoes and queso blanco. This cheesy dish gets its name from the word “chorrear,” meaning “to pour,” which is what you do with that delicious sauce — enough to cover the potatoes and then some.
Salade niçoise, France
Boiled red-skinned potatoes (best when chilled overnight) add some heft to an otherwise light mixture of tomatoes, anchovies, olives, capers and green beans that can be traced back to, as the name suggests, Nice on the French Riviera.
Potato stew dishes
When tough cuts of meat are slow-cooked to bring out the flavor, it’s more than likely that chunks of potato are swimming around in that pot, too.
Like so many stews, stovies evolved as a good way to resurrect the previous night’s roast beef and lard. Sliced potatoes and onions were thrown in a pot to stew alongside the meat until tender and the resulting “stovies” were usually enjoyed with a cracker or oatcake and a glass of whisky.
Aloo gobi, India
A classic Indian stew, aloo gobi is made with potatoes, cauliflower and peas and served over rice or atop some naan bread. It can be customized, spice-wise and by adding a range of ingredients such as crab, mushroom or shrimp. Many other curry recipes also call for potatoes (“aloo”) including saag aloo (with spinach) and aloo gosht, popular in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Curried potatoes is also a common side dish in Uganda.
A few more delicious stews featuring potatoes include:
Caldo verde, a Portuguese broth made with grated potatoes, collard greens and chouriço sausage.
Irish stew, a hearty mix of lamb (or mutton), potatoes and other root vegetables.
Maafe, a West African potato stew thickened with peanuts, with its roots in Mali.
Nikujaga, a Japanese one-pot dish that translates to “meat and potatoes.” Seasoning comes in the form of a sweet soy sauce stock, sesame oil, sake or rice wine.
Potato dumpling dishes
Knish, New York
Blintzes, another Jewish snack, are rolled, thin pancakes that can also contain potato filling, but more often feature cheese or fruit inside.
Potato pierogi, Poland
Pierogi have been made in Poland since the 13th century and they proliferated across Eastern Europe. Small dumplings that are boiled and then fried, pierogi can be stuffed with almost anything, including sauerkraut, ground meat and fruit. Cooked potatoes, along with cheese and fried onion, are the filling for what’s known as pierogi Ruskie.
Boiled and riced potato is shaped into little balls, along with bread cubes, flour, egg and seasonings, to create these old-fashioned potato dumplings, traditionally served with a Sunday roast.
Even more potato dishes
Greeks love dips, whether served as a starter or as a sauce for protein, and skordalia brings the humble potato into the mix. The garlic-laced dip is thickened by blending mashed potatoes with olive oil and lemon juice. Crushed almonds or walnuts are sometimes sprinkled in as well.
Causa rellena, Peru
These little stacks of citrusy mashed potatoes are typically layered with chicken or seafood, avocado and limes to create a refreshing Peruvian appetizer. The dish is said to have originated in the 1879 War of the Pacific involving Chile, Bolivia and Peru.
A rustic dish from the Croatian coast, blitva is now commonly served across the country, often as a side with meat or grilled seafood. It combines garlicky chunks of boiled potatoes with wilted Swiss chard and olive oil.
The Dutch enjoy a similar dish of potato mashed with endives, called andijviestamppot.
Potato stir fry, China
A traditional Sichuan dish that requires julienning potatoes very thinly to create shredded potatoes with a crunchy texture. Sichuan peppercorns, red chilies, ginger and garlic bring the heat.
Paprikás krumpli, Hungary
A hearty stew often found in rural areas that pairs peeled, cubed potatoes with sweet Hungarian paprika, simmered with garlic, tomatoes and peppers.
Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá, Portugal
Named after a 19th-century cod merchant, this salt cod, onion and potato casserole is said to have originated in Porto. It’s traditionally garnished with black olives, parsley and hard-boiled eggs and served with lemon wedges.